To learn more about \(S\)-values, otherwise known as Shannon-information values, which are the base-2 log transformation of the observed \(P\)-value \(p\), see the following references below the calculator.110


1. Shannon CE. A mathematical theory of communication. The Bell System Technical Journal. 1948;27(3):379-423. doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1948.tb01338.x

2. Good IJ. The surprise index for the multivariate normal distribution. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics. 1956;27(4):1130-1135. doi:10.1214/aoms/1177728079

3. Good IJ. Corrections to "The Surprise Index for the Multivariate Normal Distribution". The Annals of Mathematical Statistics. 1957;28(4):1055-1055. doi:10/dsgx9q

4. Bayarri MJ, Berger JO. Quantifying Surprise in the Data and Model Verification. Bayesian Statistics. 1999;6:53-82. Accessed May 19, 2020.

5. Greenland S. Invited commentary: The need for cognitive science in methodology. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2017;186(6):639-645. doi:10.1093/aje/kwx259

6. Greenland S. Valid P-values behave exactly as they should: Some misleading criticisms of P-values and their resolution with S-values. The American Statistician. 2019;73(sup1):106-114. doi:10.1080/00031305.2018.1529625

7. Cole SR, Edwards JK, Greenland S. Surprise! American Journal of Epidemiology. July 2020. doi:10/gg63md

8. Rothman KJ. Taken by Surprise. American Journal of Epidemiology. July 2020. doi:10/gg63mf

9. Rafi Z, Greenland S. Semantic and cognitive tools to aid statistical science: Replace confidence and significance by compatibility and surprise. BMC Medical Research Methodology. 2020;20(1):244. doi:10.1186/s12874-020-01105-9

10. Greenland S, Rafi Z. To Aid Scientific Inference, Emphasize Unconditional Descriptions of Statistics. arXiv:190908583 [statME]. 2020.